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Academic and Professional Writing: Writing a Research Paper
Writing a Research Paper. This page lists some of the stages involved in writing a library-based research paper. Although this list suggests that there is a simple, linear process to writing such a paper, the actual process of writing a research paper is often a messy and recursive one, so please use this outline as a flexible guide.

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This is the system we will use. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to that idea the results of the germination experiment (fig. Consider how the results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem.

A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each table or figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the results. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or highlighting best practices. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective.

Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. Although usual style requirements (e. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations.

If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. Confirm that the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper. Location data must be as precise as possible grover nature preserve, mi sw grover, maine rather than grover nature preserve or grover.

Limit the use of the word significant to this purpose only. This is accomplished with a general review of the ) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the. Otherwise, follow the general order you reported the findings in the results section.

Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social sciences. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis.


8. The Discussion - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research ...


The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under ...

Writing a discussion paper University

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Writing a discussion paper University Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the abstract from scratch. The structure of the introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.
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    For example, if you found that the mean height of male biology majors was significantly larger than that of female biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows males (180. A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in. Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected biology majors you would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper. Briefly reiterate the research problem or problems you are investigating and the methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major findings of the study.

    The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. You should also indicate the used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.

    When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site these can be obtained using handheld gps units, or, from web resources such as google earth( (labeled as a figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. April 1994) and the exact location of the study area. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of your findings. Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. For some studies, age may be an important factor. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc. Only for human studies. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense present that you used when when describing the research problem in your introduction. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur.

    Section Headings: Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized, centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below.

    WRITING A SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ARTICLE - columbia.edu

    A major part of any writing assignment consists of re-writing. Write accurately. Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate.
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    You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. The judgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections , which parallel the experimental process. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Write your abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly.

    An appendix is an each appendix should be identified by a roman numeral in sequence, e. Make sure to although you might occasionally include in this section tables and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must not contain new data (from your study) that should have been presented earlier Buy now Writing a discussion paper University

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    The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. Recommendations for further research can be included in either the discussion or conclusion of your paper, but do not repeat your recommendations in the both sections. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Limit the use of the word significant to this purpose only.

    In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior Writing a discussion paper University Buy now

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    However, keep in mind that too much use of the first person can actually distract the reader from the main points i. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. Location data must be as precise as possible grover nature preserve, mi sw grover, maine rather than grover nature preserve or grover. Limit the use of the word significant to this purpose only.

    If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each of them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data Buy Writing a discussion paper University at a discount

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    Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. If you are using a (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new techniquemethod versus the previously used methods (plant, animal, human, etc. Establish the context of the work being reported. You should also indicate the used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0. Remember to use the throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future.

    Location data must be as precise as possible grover nature preserve, mi sw grover, maine rather than grover nature preserve or grover Buy Online Writing a discussion paper University

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    Do not waste entire sentences restating your results if you need to remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation the slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. Although usual style requirements (e. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e. This is accomplished by discussing the relevant ) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated and, and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal Buy Writing a discussion paper University Online at a discount

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    An appendix is an each appendix should be identified by a roman numeral in sequence, e. For example, a paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the gliders wings. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Anatomy of an article the discussion section how does the article i read today change what i will recommend to my patients tomorrow. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the methods.

    The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the readers understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction Writing a discussion paper University For Sale

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    Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, if necessary, note how they may affect the validity of your findings. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis. A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each table or figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the results. Simple rules to follow related to tables and figures separately and in the sequence that you will refer to them from the text. The first table you refer to is table 1, the next table 2 and so forth.

    Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. Recommendations for further research can be included in either the discussion or conclusion of your paper, but do not repeat your recommendations in the both sections For Sale Writing a discussion paper University

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    The literature cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first authors last name) of the references that you actually cited in the body of your paper. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for an interpretation, and make sure that you must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work. A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in the title Sale Writing a discussion paper University

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